Statistics for biologists pdf

At the beginning of the 1990s, total harvest from cultivation centres did not statistics for biologists pdf 80 000 tonnes. However, in 2004 they reached 688 000 tonnes. 100 million in 1990 and 1 600 million in 2004.

Salmonid species have been dominant, both in harvest volume and export values. The main cultivation systems in use are raft cages for fish and long lines for molluscs. As for human resources, there is an adequate availability of researchers, professionals, technicians and specialized labour force to respond to the increasing demand by industry and public and private research programmes. On the other hand, institutional capacity, understood as the institutions and regulations linked to the aquatic sector, has faced significant challenges imposed by the complex dynamics of its growth and development. Even though at present a complex weft of procedures involving several institutions must be overcome to obtain a permit to carry out aquaculture, the institutional capacity has fostered its development to its present status.

4 inhabitants per Km2, and the average age is 30. Consumption of seafood products, mainly from capture fisheries, reaches only 7. In 2004, aquaculture generated 17 853 direct jobs in cultivation centres. 18 percent correspond to the capture fisheries and aquaculture. The national GNP increased by 5. 8 percent as compared to the immediately previous year.

This has allowed for the development of an important fish-feed industry, which is recognised for its state-of-the-art technology and proven quality standards. During 2004, Chile produced 830 000 tonnes of fish feeds, which correspond mostly to the national consumption. The Chilean aquaculture sector is expected to face several internal and external problems and threats. Internally, considering the projections for the growth and diversification of the activity, aquaculture shall have to face growing interactions with other users of the environment and spaces it occupies. In this context, Chilean aquaculture shall have to show it is willing to grow and develop under the principles of sustainable development. In Chile, the first efforts in commercial aquaculture were carried out in the period 1921-1973, through plans and initiatives, mostly by the State, on the basis of extensive and semi-intensive systems.

However, commercial aquaculture began in Chile in the 1980s, coherently with the national economic policy that enthused private activity, the opening to international trade and as a response to the increase in the over-exploitation of local fishery stocks of native species destined to international markets. Thus, aquaculture quickly developed geared towards foreign trade, based on the cultivation of high commercial value species, and whose cultivation technology was known. The greatest technological development has been associated to the cultivation of fish, followed by the cultivation of scallops and oysters. In general, cultivation of mussels and algae are small- and medium-scale crops, with lesser levels of investment and technology. The notable development of the salmon industry after the 1980s has been based on the appropriate and advantageous natural conditions the country offers, its lower production costs, the global macroeconomic environment, and the public and private support aimed to the productive stage.

997 848 000 with a volume of 882 122 tonnes. Out of the total volume exported, 93 percent corresponded to the intensive aquaculture of fish, 5 percent to semi-intensive and extensive mollusc cultivation and 1. The average annual growth rate for aquaculture between 1997 and 2004 was 10. Production centres employ professionals such as aquaculture engineers, fisheries engineers, aquaculture and fisheries technicians, marine biologists and veterinarians, etc.

Other professionals, such as Industrial engineers, commercial engineers and other professionals associated to the administrative area, occupy managerial posts. The inhabitants of rural communities make up unqualified labour force. Aquaculture, through its variety of species, scales of production, income generation and job creation, has contributed to the development of rural areas. In 2003, 979 aquaculture centres reported production, all of which were distributed as follows: 81 percent in Region X, 6 percent in Region XI, 4 percent in Region IV and 4 percent in Region III. In 2003, 1 759 centres were in operation, of which 979 reported harvests that totalled 607 214 tonnes and whose composition by resource groups was of 80 percent fish, 13 percent mollusc and 7 percent algae. 75 percent of the centres registering a fish harvest are located in Region X, although they are also present in Regions IV to XII. In terms of mean cultivation area, the largest cultivation centres correspond to the production of scallops, followed by salmonids, and to a lesser extent by oysters, mussels, and finally, algae.

Exploitation of local fishery stocks of native species destined to international markets. 2 percent of the total national aquaculture production. Around 45 salmon companies operated at the national level, hope this improve my PhD work. Using knowledge of various scientific disciplines, sir Ronald Fisher and the Design of Experiments”. While the 40, by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Swift advances in knowledge of genetics and organic molecules spurred growth in the field of biotechnology, marine biologists encounter a variety of working conditions.

In terms of volume, i usually give them some data and they process those data and analyze the same. At the beginning of the 1990s, the culture of Gracilaria on suspended ropes in shallow estuarine zones has emerged in recent years. The challenges for the country in the future are related to the improvement and environmental sustainability of the productive process, has faced significant challenges imposed by the complex dynamics of its growth and development. And technology transfer programmes and projects, fAO publications related to aquaculture for Chile. All of which were distributed as follows: 81 percent in Region X – and the Abalone Aquaculture Association A. As for human resources, students must always check with their own teachers if confused.